Their friendship developed through their shared interest in the Arts.
来自空巷旧梦网友的回复：This contributes to my interest in art .
It is this that leads to my interest in art.
During the 1930s, America witnessed a breakdown of the
Democratic and free enterprise system as the US fell into the worst
depression in history. The economic depression that beset the United
States and other countries was unique in its severity and its
consequences. At the depth of the depression, in 1933, one American
worker in every four was out of a job. The great industrial slump
continued throughout the 1930s, shaking the foundations of Western
The New Deal describes the program of US president Franklin D.
Roosevelt from 1933 to 1939 of relief, recovery, and reform. These new
policies aimed tosolve the economic problems created by the
depression of the 1930s. When Rooseveltwas nominated, he said, I
pledge you, I pledge myself, to a new deal for the American people.
The New Deal included federal action of unprecedented scope to
stimulate industrial recovery, assist victims of the Depression,
guarantee minimum living standards, and prevent future economic
crises. Many economic, political, and social factors lead up to the
New Deal. Staggering statistics, like a 25% unemployment rate, and the
fact that 20% of NYC school children were under weight and
malnourished, made it clear immediate action was necessary.
In the first two years, the New Deal was concerned mainly with
relief, setting up shelters and soup kitchens to feed the millions of
unemployed. However as time progressed, the focus shifted towards
recovery. In order to accomplish this monumental task, several
agencies were created. The National Recovery Administration (NRA) was
the keystone of the early new deal program launched by Roosevelt. It
was created in June 1933 under the terms of the National Industrial
Recovery Act. The NRA permitted businesses to draft codes of fair
competition, with presidential approval, that regulated prices,
wages, working conditions, and credit terms. Businesses that complied
with the codes were exempted from antitrust laws, and workers were
given the right to organize unions and bargain collectively. After
that, the government set up long-range goals which included permanent
recovery, and a reform of current abuses. Particularly those that
produced the boom-or-bust catastrophe. The NRA gave the President
power to regulate interstate commerce. This power was originally given
to Congress. While the NRA was effective, it was bringing America
closer to socialism by giving the President unconstitutional powers.
In May 1935 the US Supreme Court, in Schechter Poultry Corporation
V. United States, unanimously declared the NRA unconstitutional on the
grounds that the code-drafting process was unconstitutional.
Another New Deal measure under Title II of the National
Industrial Recovery Act of June 1933, the Public Works Administration
(PWA), was designed to stimulate US industrial recovery by pumping
federal funds into large-scale construction projects. The head of the
PWA exercised extreme caution in allocating funds, and this did not
stimulate the rapid revival of US industry that New Dealers had hoped
for. The PWA spent $6 billion enabling building contractors to employ
approximately 650,000 workers who might otherwise have been jobless.
The PWA built everything from schools and libraries to roads and
highways. The agency also financed the construction of cruisers,
aircraft carriers, and destroyers for the navy.
In addition, the New Deal program founded the Works Projects
Administration in 1939. It was the most important New Deal work-relief
agency. The WPA developed relief programs to preserve peoples skills
and self-respect by providing useful work during a period of massive
unemployment. From 1935 to 1943 the WPA provided approximately 8
million jobs at a cost of more than $11 billion. This funded the
construction of thousands of public buildings and facilities. In
addition, the WPA sponsored the Federal Theater Project, Federal Art
Project, and Federal Writers Project providing work for people in the
arts. In 1943, after the onset of wartime prosperity, Roosevelt
terminated the WPA. One of the most well known, The Social Security
Act, created a system of old-age pensions and unemployment insurance,
which is still around today. Social security consists of public
programs to protect workers and their families from income losses
associated with old age, illness, unemployment, or death.
The Fair Labor Standards Act (1938) established a federal
Minimum Wage and maximum-hours policy. The minimum wage, 25 cents per
hour, applied to many workers engaged in interstate commerce. The law
was intended to prevent competitive wage cutting by employers during
the Depression. After the law was passed, wages began to rise as the
economy turned to war production. Wages and prices continued to rise,
and the original minimum wage ceased to be relevant. However, this new
law still excluded millions of working people, as did social security.
However, a severe recession led many people to turn against New Deal
policies. In addition, World War II erupted in September 1939. Causing
an enormous growth in the economy as war goods were once again in
great demand. No major New Deal legislation was enacted after 1938.
The Depression was a devastating event in America, and by regulating
banks and the stock market the New Deal eliminated the dubious
financial practices that had helped precipitate the Great Depression.
However, Roosevelts chief fiscal tool, deficit spending, proved to be
ineffective in averting downturns in the economy.
例：Tom will go shopping tomorrow,so will I.
Lucy is beautiful,so is your sister.
For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes t owrite a short essay entitle My View on Plastic Surgery. You should write at least 150 words according to the outline given below in Chinese.
My View on Plastic Surgery
In recent years, more and more people, especially some young girls choose to take plastic surgeries. Some people argue that this kind of surgery can improve ones appearance, thus secure a good job. Others hold a different opinion, they consider plastic surgery as a waste of money. Personally, I agree with the latter.
Firstly, beauty is only skin-deep, as the saying goes, virtue is more important than appearance. Plastic surgery cannot improve ones character. Who do you think is more popular, an ordinary girl with charming personality, or a beautiful girl with arrogant manner? Secondly, success relies on ones abilities but not appearance. Some people, especially young girls dream to find a good job after taking plastic surgery. For example, it takes one at least 30,000 Yuan to have double eyelid. Fourthly, people have to bear the risks of an unsuccessful surgery which will be a lifelong pain.
All in all, it is not advisable for people to take plastic surgeries. We can get what we want by improving our inner qualities, such as our personality and ability, and there is no need to endure the pains and economic loss of a plastic surgery.
Beauty is only skin-deep, as the saying goes
bear the risks 承担风险
competent and well-trained people 有真才实学的人
e.g.His new novel is a must for all lovers of crime fiction
Would you like to become more beauty than people around you?Competition in reality of society make beauty obsession. Cosmetics might no long satisfy people’s appetite for beauty. With developing tecnolagy, cosmetic surgeryhas stepped into our life, like a magician, it turns an ugly duckling into a beautiful swan. However, do you really want the beauty brought by plastic surgery? In fact, the artificial look is almost nothing compare with one’s inner beauty except momentarily satisfaction. Contrary to expectation, common sense of the beauty is still disapproval of the fake beauty, not to mention plastic surgery is harmful to people’s heh. To begin with, one’s outer beauty will fade quickly as time goes by, but one’s inner beauty will always shine. Elisabeth Kübler-Ross hadsaid, “People are like stained-glass windows. They sparkle and shine when the sun is out, but when the darkness sets in, their true beauty is revealed only if there is lights from within. My best friend Joey back in Woodland school proves this idea perfectly. She is 7 inches shorter than me but twice mysize. Her friends always joke about her small eyes that she should open them sometimes. Even though Joey can’t be considered as a beauty, but she is still attractive. Joey is the president of Student Activity Council. She had organized many interesting and creative activities that brought joy and energy to my school. As a friend, Joey is friendly, humorous, honest and tolerant. She is like the gluesticks her friends together. All of her friends had said they couldn’t do anything without her presence.
Different eyes have different definitions on beauty. For example, some people appreciate small eyes, whereas others adore big one. In fact, people cultivated respectively have different sense of beauty. An American may adore women with tanned skin, full body shape and large, bright eyes. In contrast, Chinese usually like women with classical look that have skinny body shape, thin lips and small eyes. People describe their sense of beauty in the form of books, arts and media. They are the most successful method of communication because they travel all around the world. From these sources, people nowadays develop all kind of taste of beauty. So, one can never become more beautiful, because there will always be people opposite opinions.
Finally, plastic surgery have side effects which hurt one’s heh, sometimes it is risky to life. Common cosmetic surgeries are breast augmentations, reshaping of nose and eyelid surgery. These surgeries require eithe skin removal or silicon gel ingestion. Cosmetic surgery has low risk in infection and scarring, however, if it unfortunately occurs, the effects on body are irreversible. People who failed cosmetic surgery are usually disfigured permanently. Also, there are underlying risks after the surgery. The silicon gel inserted into the breasts or nose can get shifted during exercises and damage one’s organs. The show 1000 ways to die describes a real story when a woman in San Diego got breast implants. The implants she got were substandard and filled with water instead of pure silicon. While on a plane, the atmospheric pressure caused the implants to expand and explode, and killed the woman. Life is a valueless treasure, we should be grateful for it instead of risk it for illusionary beauty.
All in all, a beautiful face is merely a shell. Self-cultivation, a good manner and rich knowledge make people to be more attractive. A beautiful appearance doesn’t make one to be superior also because of our various sense of beauty. Even if one believes beauty to be important, cosmetic surgery should never be considered because it associates with all kind of risks. A mistake during plastic surgery can lead to irreversible damage to one’s face and body, and may even cause death. Our appearance is a gift of parents. We are all beautiful as long as we have a positive attitude toward our appearance and appreciate what we already owned.感谢您的答案，可是这类都是坏处，我写那那篇作文是好处，不可以写坏处。能提供些论点，便是说整容好处的例子？
来自红颜多妖孽网友的回复：I am open-minded. And I like making friends.
Since childhood, I have been learning to draw paintings. I have great interest in arts.During my leisure time, I like taking photoes and drawing pictures.
I like leisure life, but to my image, and the atitude to work, I have always seeked to be perfect.
I can sum up my shortcomings from my experiences, so as to imprpve my abilities.
As far as I am concerned, no matter what you do,qualities and wisdom are necessary.来自指缝阳光网友的回答：
马克西米林格曼 （1861年12月10日（法国巴黎） - 1931年5月2日（法国巴黎））是一个法国的农业工程教授，是谁发觉了“ 林格曼效应 “，即，该组工作时，个人放松。 1]
After graduating from the public schools of Paris, Ringelmann studied at the Institute National Agronomique (National Institute of Agronomy), where he was an outstanding student.从巴黎的公立学校毕业以后，林格曼研究在我国农艺研究所（我国农学研究所），在那里他是一名杰出的学生。 He also attended Hervé Mangons evening course in rural engineering at the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers (National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts).他还出席了埃尔韦Mangon乡村工程，夜里在音乐学院中华民族艺术等Métiers（国立工艺美术学院）课程。 (Charles-Franois Hervé Mangon (1821-1888) had been trained as a civil engineer, but his interest shifted to agriculture, where he studied irrigation, drainage, fertilizers, etc.) [ 2 ] Ringelmann also attended courses at the cole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées (National School of Bridges and Roads), a civil engineering school. （查尔斯-弗朗索瓦·，埃尔韦Mangon（1821年至1888年）已经做为一个土木工程师的培训，但他的兴致转移到农业，在那里他研究了灌溉，排水，化肥等） 林格曼还出席了在cole国营课程蓬等Chaussées（全国各地桥梁和道路学院），土木工程学院。 He became an agronomic engineer in 1880.于1880年，他成为了更好地农艺工程师。 Starting in 1881, he tutored the course in rural engineering at the cole Nationale dAgriculture (National School of Agriculture) in Grand Jouan, Nozay, France. [ 3 ] By 1883, he was contributing a weekly column to the Journal dAgriculture Practique (Journal of Practical Agriculture).从1881年开始，他在国立高等，D农业（全国各地农业学院）指导乡村工程的环节中，法国大儒安，Nozay。 到1883，他贡献了每周专栏-德农业practique（实用农业学报）。
Up to that time, the development of agricultural machinery had been done largely by amateurs.到那个过程中，农业机械的发展已完成关键由业余爱好者。 Eugène Tisserand, a director at the Ministry of Agriculture, wanted to apply a scientific approach to the development and evaluation of farm machinery.尤金·蒂塞朗，在农业部的主任医师，想申请农业机械的发展和评价的科学办法。 He therefore requested that Ringelmann draft plans for a facility for testing agricultural machinery, which after many vicissitudes opened in 1888.这样的话，他要求测试饱经沧桑后开业于1888年的农业机械，设施林格曼草案计划。 The facility was established on Jenner Street in Paris and Ringelmann was named its director. [ 4 ] He adapted industrial instruments where possible, but he also designed and had built instruments such as traction dynamometers, rotational dynamometers, profilographs, etc. He aimed to determine the efficiency of agricultural machinery, its economics, the quality of the work performed, etc. His wide-ranging interests soon led him to extend his research to include all branches of rural engineering: construction, drainage, irrigation, electrification, hydraulics.该设施是在巴黎和林格曼在詹纳街成立被任命为主导任。 他适应工业仪器在很有可能的状况下，但他还设计和建造，如牵引测功机，旋转式测功机，profilographs等乐器，他的目的是确认农业机械，其经济，执行工作的品质，效率，等他普遍的利益，尽快使他延长他的研究，包含所有乡村工程建设，排涝，灌溉，电气化，液压分行。
In 1887, Ringelmann was elected to the Académie dAgriculture, and in the same year, he became professor of mechanics and rural engineering at the cole Nationale dAgriculture in Grignon.在1887年，林格曼当选的Académie的农业，并在同一个年，他成为教授在coleNATIONALE D农业Grignon力学和乡村工程。 In 1897, he succeeded his former professor Hervé Mangon as professor of rural engineering at the Institute National Agronomique.在1897年，他成功了他的前任教授埃尔韦Mangon乡村工程我国农艺研究所教授。 He became in 1902 professor of colonial rural engineering at the cole Nationale Supérieure dAgriculture Coloniale in Nogent-sur-Marne. [ 5 ]他成为了更好地殖民地乡村工程于1902年在马恩河畔诺让学校国立高等D农业Coloniale教授。 
In 1897 he developed a simple set of grids for measuring the density of smoke, the Ringelmann scale . 1897年，他林格曼烟，密度测量开发一套简单的电网规模 。 These grids are still used today [ 6 ] .这类网格今儿仍在使用 。 During 1900-1905, he wrote a monumental, four-volume study Essai sur lHistoire du Génie Rural (Essay on the History of Rural Engineering), which traced the progress of rural engineering from pre-history to the modern age.在1900至05年期内，他写了一个极大的，四卷的研究Essai SUR LHistoire杜GENIE乡村 （乡村工程的历史散文），追溯到从史前到现代的乡村工程的进度。
Ringelmann is especially notable for discovering the Ringelmann effect in 1913 [ 7 ] , also known associal loafing . [ 8 ] Specifically, Ringelmann had his students, individually and in groups, pull on a rope.林格曼于1913年发觉的林格曼效应十分显着 ，又称“ 社会闲散 “。 实际而言，林格曼了他的学生，个别及团体，拉一根绳子上。 He noticed that the effort exerted by a group was less than the sum of the efforts exerted by the students acting individually. [ 9 ]他留意到，由一组施加的努力是小于由学生单独行动所作的努力的总和。